Aldosterone

From Academic Kids

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. It is formed in the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, as the cells of other sections don't have the corresponding enzyme. It is the sole endogenous member of the class of mineralocorticoids. It helps regulate the body's electrolyte balance by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). It diminishes the secretion of sodium (Na+) ions and therefore of water and stimulates the secretion of potassium (K+) ions through the kidneys.

Unlike neuroreceptors, classic steroid receptors are located inside of cells. The aldosterone/MR receptor complex binds to the coresponding section of DNA called hormone response element that alters protein synthesis and the transcription of messenger RNA, including serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, channel-inducing factor, K-ras2A, and three subunits of the epithelial sodium channel. These genes are important for transepithelial sodium transport.

Aldosterone is synthesized in reaction to increases of angiotensin II or plasma potassium, which are present in proportion to sodium deficiencies. It is also synthesized in response to different cytokines that get secreted due to hyperthermia. The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm, with about 75% of the daily production is secreted between 04:00 and 10:00 each day.

Aldosterone and the kidney

Control of aldosterone release

References

1. Williams JS, Williams GH. 50th anniversary of aldosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2364-72. Full text (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/88/6/2364). PMID 12788829.de:Aldosteron fr:Aldostérone nl:Aldosteron pl:Aldosteron

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