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Brunei

From Academic Kids

(Redirected from Brunei Darussalam)

The Sultanate of Brunei, more commonly referred to as Brunei Darussalam or simply Brunei, is a petroleum-rich country located on the island of Borneo, in southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded by East Malaysia.

Brunei is one of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

برني دارالسلام
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Flag of Brunei Image:bx-coat.gif
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto (translation): Always in service with God's guidance
image:LocationBrunei.png
Official language Malay language
Capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 163rd
5,765 km²
8.6%
Population


 - Total (2001)
 - Density

Ranked 162nd


343,653
61/km²

Independence January 1, 1984
Currency Dollar
Time zone UTC + 8
National anthem Allah Peliharakan Sultan
Internet TLD .bn
Calling Code 673 (080 from Malaysia)
Contents

History

Main article: History of Brunei

The Sultanate of Brunei was very powerful from the 14th through 16th century, covering the southern Philippines, Sarawak and Sabah. European influence gradually brought an end to this power, with Brunei loosing much of its territory to Sarawak. Brunei was a British protectorate from 1888 to 1984.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Brunei

The Sultan of Brunei, whose title has passed within the same dynasty since the 15th century, is the head of state and head of government in Brunei. The Sultan is advised by several councils and a cabinet of ministers although he is effectively the ultimate ruler. The media is extremely pro-government and the Royal family retains an almost godlike status within the country. There is no elected legislative body. In September 2004 the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah convened an appointed Parliament which had not met since independence in 1984. The country has been under hypothetical martial law since a rebellion occurred in the early 1960's and was put down by British troops from Singapore. A garrison of Gurkha soldiers are still stationed in Brunei on the Sultan's payroll to protect the oil fields in the West of the country. There is also a large British Army presence to support and train the Brunei's Army. Brunei also claims territory in Sarawak and is one of many nations to lay claim to disputed Spratly Islands.

Districts

Main article: Districts of Brunei

Brunei is divided into four districts, called daerah. These are:

Geography

Main article: Geography of Brunei

Brunei consists of two unconnected parts; 97% of the population lives in the larger western part, only about 10,000 live in the mountainous eastern part, the district of Temburong. Major towns are the capital Bandar Seri Begawan (about 46,000 inhabitants), the port town Muara and the oil producing districts of Seria and Kuala Belait.

The climate in Brunei is equatorial-tropical, with high temperatures, a high humidity and heavy rainfall.

Image:bx-map.gif

Economy

Main article: Economy of Brunei

This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Stated plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Brunei

About two-thirds of the Brunei population are of Malay origin. The most important minority ethnic group are the Chinese, with about 15%. These groups also reflect the most important languages: Malay, which is the official language, and Chinese. English is also widely spoken and there is a relatively large expatriate community.

Islam is the official religion of Brunei, and the sultan is the head of the religion in the country. Other faiths practised are Buddhism (mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Brunei

The culture of Brunei is similar to Malay culture, with heavy influences from Hinduism and Islam.

See also:

Miscellaneous topics

Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.


Further Reading

  • L. W. W. Gudgeon (1913). British North Borneo. London, Adam and Charles Black.

External links

Official



Countries in Southeast Asia

Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Myanmar | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam

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