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Charles XIII of Sweden

From Academic Kids

Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748.

Karl XIII
Carl II
Image:Charles XIII of Sweden.jpg
ReignFrom June 6, 1809 in Sweden


From November 4, 1814 in Norway
Until February 5, 1818

Coronation 
Royal motto "Folkets vl min hgsta lag"
("The good of the people
my supreme law"
¹ )
QueenHedwig Elizabeth Charlotte
Royal HouseHolstein-Gottorp
Predecessors Gustav IV Adolf in Sweden


Frederick VI in Norway

SuccessorCharles XIV, as the Swedish title and


Carl III Johan, as the Norwegian title.

Date of BirthOctober 7, 1748
Place of BirthStockholm
Date of DeathFebruary 5, 1818
Place of DeathStockholm
Place of BurialRiddarholmskyrkan, Stockholm
¹ Compare with the U.S. state of Missouri (1821):
"Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law".
Contents

Life and politics

In 1772 he co-operated in the revolutionary plans of his brother Gustav III of Sweden. On the outbreak of the Russo-Swedish War of 1788 he served with distinction as admiral of the fleet, especially at the battles of Hogland (June 7, 1788) and land (July 26, 1789). On the latter occasion he would have won a signal victory but for the unaccountable remissness of his second-in-command, Admiral Liljehorn. On the death of Gustav III, Charles, now duke of Sudermannia, acted as regent of Sweden till 1796; but the real ruler of the country was the narrow-minded and vindictive Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, whose mischievous influence over him was supreme. These four years were perhaps the most miserable and degrading in Swedish history (an age of lead succeeding an age of gold, as it has well been called) and may be briefly described as alternations of fantastic jacobinism and ruthless despotism. On the accession of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden (November 1796), the duke became a mere cipher in politics till the March 13, 1809, when those who had dethroned Gustav IV Adolf appointed him regent, and finally elected king by Riksdag of the Estates. But by this time he was prematurely decrepit, and Jean-Baptist Bernadotte took over the government as soon as he landed in Sweden, 1810. By the Union of Sweden and Norway in 1814 Charles became king of Norway under the name Carl II of Norway. After eight years as king only by title, Charles died on February 5, 1818.

Children

He had married his cousin Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp (1759-1818), on July 7, 1774 but both of their children would die in infancy.

  1. Louisa Hedvig (1797)
  2. Carl Adolf, Duke of Wermelandia (1798)

See also

References

Preceded by:
Gustav IV Adolf
King of Sweden
1809-1818
Succeeded by:
Charles XIV/ Carl III Johan
Preceded by:
Christian Frederick
King of Norway
1814-1818
cs:Karel XIII.

de:Karl XIII. nl:Karel XIII van Zweden ja:カール13世ヨハン fi:Kaarle XIII sv:Karl XIII

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