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Diaspora

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Template:WiktionaryThe term diaspora (Greek διασπορά, a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands, being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture.

Originally, the term Diaspora (capitalized) was used to refer specifically to the populations of Jews exiled from Judea in 586 BCE by the Babylonians, and Jerusalem in 135 CE by the Roman Empire. This term is used interchangeably to refer to the historical movements of the dispersed ethnic population of Israel, the cultural development of that population, or the population itself. The probable origin of the word is the Septuagint version of Deuteronomy 28:25, "thou shalt be a diaspora (Greek for dispersion) in all kingdoms of the earth". The term has been used in its modern sense since the late twentieth century.

The academic field of diaspora studies was established in the late twentieth century in regard to the expanded meaning of diaspora.

The twentieth century in particular has seen massive ethnic refugee crises due to war and the rise of nationalism and racism. The first half of the twentieth century saw the creation of hundreds of millions of ethnic refugees across Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. Many of these refugees who did not die from starvation or war went to the Americas.

List of notable diasporas

In reference to both historical figures, and present-day persons, the idiom of "living in the Diaspora" in a closely related sense is used -- especially by Jews or when speaking of a Jew -- as synonymous with "living in exile from the land of Israel" as in "Jacob lived in Israel, but most of his friends lived in the Diaspora" Note that this sense is not used in reference to any sort of political exile (as by one's fellow citizens) from the Nation of Israel .
  • Muslim diaspora refers to Muslim populations who have left their traditional homelands in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia and migrated, usually for economic reasons, to the more prosperous regions of the west. They are found especially in European, Russian, North American and Australian urban areas.They are not to be confused with the Muslim populations of India or western China, who arrived or were converted at a time of military conquest by Muslim armies.
  • Palestinians who fled Palestine during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war (see Palestinian exodus, Palestinian refugees)
  • Polonia, the diaspora of the Poles, started with the emigrations after the partitions of Poland, January Uprising and the November Uprising, enlarged by the Nazi policies and later by the establishment of the Curzon line
  • The Southeast Asian diaspora includes the refugees from the numerous wars that took place in Southeast Asia, such as World War II and the Vietnam War.
  • Various ethnic minorities from areas under Russian and Soviet control following the Russian Revolution, continuing through the mass forced resettlements under Stalin
  • Various groups fled in large numbers from areas under Axis control during World War II, or after the border changes following the war, and formed their own diasporas. Other than the aforementioned Jewish diaspora, notable are:
  • The Somali dispora that includes Ethnic Somalis who live in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti. It also includes the million people who live Europe, North America, and the Middle East as refugees from the civil War. It altogether numbers between five and seven million. This is near the population of Somalia itself.
  • Futuristic science fiction sometimes refers to a "Diaspora", taking place when much of humanity leaves earth to settle on far-flung colony worlds.

The above list is not comprehensive or definitive. Only a few have been given much historical attention.

During the Cold War era huge populations of refugees continued to form from areas of war, especially from Third World nations, all over Africa, South and Central America, the Middle East, and east Asia.

External Links

es:Dispora fr:Diaspora nl:Diaspora nn:Diaspora ja:ディアスポラ pl:Diaspora

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