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Dysprosium

From Academic Kids

TerbiumDysprosiumHolmium
Dy
Cf  
 
 
Missing image
Dy-TableImage.png
Image:Dy-TableImage.png

General
Name, Symbol, Number Dysprosium, Dy, 66
Chemical series Lanthanides
Group, Period, Block _ , 6, f
Density, Hardness 8551 kg/m3, no data
Appearance silvery white
Atomic properties
Atomic weight 162.500(1) amu
Atomic radius (calc.) 175 (228) pm
Covalent radius no data
van der Waals radius no data
Electron configuration [Xe]6s²4f10
e- 's per energy level 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
Oxidation states (Oxide) 3 (weak base)
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Physical properties
State of matter solid (ferromagnetic
under liquid nitrogen,
nonmagnetic at
room temperature)
Melting point 1680 K (2565 ?F)
Boiling point 2840 K (4653 ?F)
Molar volume 19.01 ×10-6 m3/mol
Heat of vaporization 230 kJ/mol
Heat of fusion 11.06 kJ/mol
Vapor pressure no data
Velocity of sound 2170 m/s at 293.15 K
Miscellaneous
Electronegativity 1.22 (Pauling scale)
Specific heat capacity 170 J/(kg*K)
Electrical conductivity 1.08 106/m ohm
Thermal conductivity 10.7 W/(m*K)
1st ionization potential 573.0 kJ/mol
2nd ionization potential 1130 kJ/mol
3rd ionization potential 2200 kJ/mol
4th ionization potential 3990 kJ/mol
Most stable isotopes
iso NA half-life DM DE MeV DP
154Dy {syn.} 3.0E+6 y α 2.947 150Gd
156Dy 0.06% 156Dy is stable with 90 neutrons
158Dy 0.10% 158Dy is stable with 92 neutrons
160Dy 2.34% 160Dy is stable with 94 neutrons
161Dy 18.91% 161Dy is stable with 95 neutrons
162Dy 25.51% 162Dy is stable with 96 neutrons
163Dy 24.90% 163Dy is stable with 97 neutrons
164Dy 28.18% 164Dy is stable with 98 neutrons
SI units & STP are used except where noted.

Dysprosium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Dy and atomic number 66.

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Contents

Notable characteristics

Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a metallic, bright silver luster, relatively stable in air at room temperature, but dissolving readily in dilute or concentrated mineral acids with the emission of hydrogen. It is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium's characteristics can be greatly affected even by small amounts of impurities.

Applications

Dysprosium is used, in conjunction with vanadium and other elements, for making laser materials; its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section and melting point also suggest using it for nuclear control rods, dysprosium oxide (also known as dysprosia) with nickel cement compounds which absorb neutrons readily without swelling or contracting under prolonged neutron bombardment, is being used for cooling rods in nuclear reactors. Dysprosium-cadmium chalcogenides are sources of infrared radiation for studying chemical reactions; furthermore, dysprosium is used for manufacturing compact discs.

History

Dysprosium was first identified in Paris in 1886 by French chemist Paul ɭile Lecoq de Boisbaudran; however, the element itself was not isolated in relatively pure form until after the development of ion exchange and metallographic reduction techniques in the 1950s. The name dysprosium is derived from Greek dysprositos, "hard to get at".

Occurrence

Dysprosium is never encountered as the free element, but is found in many minerals, including xenotime, fergusonite, gadolinite, euxenite, polycrase, blomstrandine, monazite and bastnasite, often with erbium and holmium or other rare earth elements.

Compounds

Nearly all dysprosium compounds are in the +3 oxidation state, and are highly paramagnetic. Dysprosium compounds include:

Isotopes

Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of 7 stable isotopes, 156-Dy, 158-Dy, 160-Dy, 161-Dy, 162-Dy, 163-Dy and 164-Dy, with 164-Dy being the most abundant (28.18% natural abundance). 28 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 154-Dy with a half-life of 3.0E+6 years, 159-Dy with a half-life of 144.4 days, and 166-Dy with a half-life of 81.6 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 10 hours, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 30 seconds. This element also has 5 meta states, with the most stable being 165m-Dy (t? 1.257 minutes), 147m-Dy (t? 55.7 seconds) and 145m-Dy (t? 13.6 seconds).

The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 164-Dy, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 164-Dy are terbium isotopes, and the primary products after are holmium isotopes.

Precautions

As with the other lanthanides, dysprosium compounds are of low to moderate toxicity, although their toxicity has not been investigated in detail. Dysprosium does not have any known biological properties.

References

External links

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