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Nobel Peace Prize

From Academic Kids

Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes requested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to the will of Alfred Nobel the prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

While the Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Literature Prizes are awarded annually in Stockholm, the Peace Prize is awarded in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The Norwegian Nobel Committee, whose members are chosen by the Norwegian Parliament, is appointed to select the laureate for the Peace Prize, and the prize is awarded by its chairman, currently Dr. Ole Danbolt Mjøs. At the time of Alfred Nobel's death Sweden and Norway were in a personal union in which the Swedish government was solely responsible for foreign policy, and the Norwegian Parliament was responsible only for Norwegian domestic policy. Alfred Nobel therefore stipulated that the Peace Prize be awarded by Norway rather than Sweden in order to prevent the manipulation of the selection process by foreign powers.

Nominations for the prize may be made by a broad array of prominent individuals, including former recipients, members of national assemblies, university professors, international judges, and special advisors to the prize committee. In some years as many as 140 nominations have been received. The nominations are kept secret by the committee which asks that nominators do the same. Over time many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no offical standing.[1] (http://www.nobel.no/eng_com_nom.html)

Unlike the other Nobel Prizes, the Nobel Peace Prize may be awarded to persons or organizations that are in the process of resolving an issue, rather than upon the resolution of the issue. In this way, the Nobel Peace Prize differs from all the other Nobel prizes. Since the prize can be given to individuals involved in ongoing peace processes, some of the awards now appear, with hindsight, questionable, particularly when those processes failed to bear lasting fruit. For example, the awards given to Theodore Roosevelt, Le Duc Tho, and Henry Kissinger were particularly controversial and criticized; the latter prompted two dissenting committee members to resign [2] (http://nobelprize.org/peace/articles/controversies/index.html). The Nobel Committee has also received criticism from right-wing groups who see their decisions as guided by an apparent left-wing bias. They especially condemn the prize being given to people like Yasser Arafat, whom they view as having been a supporter of terrorism.


Laureates

List of Nobel Prize laureates in Peace from 1901 to the present day.

Year Individual or Organization Notes
1901 Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland) founder of the Red Cross and initiator of the Geneva Convention.
Frédéric Passy (France) founder and president of the Société Française pour l'arbitrage entre nations.
1902 Élie Ducommun (Switzerland) and Charles Albert Gobat honorary secretaries of the Permanent International Peace Bureau in Berne.
1903 Sir William Randal Cremer (UK) secretary of the International Arbitration League.
1904 Institut de droit international (Gent, Belgium).
1905 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Baronin von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (Austria) writer, honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1906 Theodore Roosevelt (USA) president of the United States, for drawing up the peace treaty in the Russo-Japanese War.
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (Italy) president of the Lombard League of Peace.
Louis Renault (France) professor of International Law.
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson (Sweden) founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League.
Fredrik Bajer (Denmark) honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1909 Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert (Belgium) member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage.
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant (France) founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale
1910 Bureau International Permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau), Berne.
1911 Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Netherlands) initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law in The Hague.
Alfred Hermann Fried (Austria) founder of Die Waffen Nieder.
1912 Elihu Root (USA) for initiating various arbitration agreements.
1913 Henri la Fontaine (Belgium) president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1914 not awarded World War I
1915 not awarded World War I
1916 not awarded World War I
1917 International Red Cross, Geneva.
1918 Not awarded
1919 Woodrow Wilson (USA) president of the United States, for founding the League of Nations.
1920 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois president of the Council of the League of Nations.
1921 Hjalmar Branting (Sweden) prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations.
Christian Lous Lange (Norway) secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
1922 Fridtjof Nansen (Norway) Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees.
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain (UK) for the Locarno Treaty.
Charles Gates Dawes (USA) chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission and originator of the Dawes Plan.
1926 Aristide Briand (France) for the Locarno Treaties.
Gustav Stresemann (Germany) for the Locarno Treaties.
1927 Ferdinand Buisson (France) founder and president of the League for Human Rights.
Ludwig Quidde (Germany) delegate to numerous peace conferences.
1928 Not awarded
1929 Frank B. Kellogg (USA) for the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1930 Archbishop Lars Olof Nathan (Jonathan) Söderblom (Sweden) leader of the ecumenical movement.
1931 Jane Addams (USA) international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Nicholas Murray Butler (USA) for promoting the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1932 Not awarded
1933 Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane) (UK) writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council.
1934 Arthur Henderson (UK) chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference
1935 Carl von Ossietzky (Germany) pacifist journalist.
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas (Argentina) president of the League of Nations and mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia.
1937 The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood founder and president of the International Peace Campaign.
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees, Geneva.
1939 Not awarded
1940 Not awarded World War II
1941 Not awarded World War II
1942 Not awarded World War II
1943 Not awarded World War II
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross (awarded retroactively in 1945).
1945 Cordell Hull (USA) for co-initiating the United Nations.
1946 Emily Greene Balch (USA) honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
John R. Mott (USA) chairman of the International Missionary Council and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations
1947 The Friends Service Council (UK) and The American Friends Service Committee (USA) on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers.
1948 Not awarded Apparently it would have been awarded to Mahatma Gandhi had he not been dead. See the Nobel e-museum article. [3] (http://nobelprize.org/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html)
1949 The Lord Boyd-Orr (UK) director General Food and Agricultural Organization, president National Peace Council, president World Union of Peace Organizations.
1950 Ralph Bunche for mediating in Palestine (1948).
1951 Léon Jouhaux (France) president of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN.
1952 Albert Schweitzer (Germany) for founding the Lambarene Hospital in Gabon.
1953 American Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall for the Marshall Plan.
1954 The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1955 Not awarded Korean War
1956 Not awarded Korean War
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson (Canada) president of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly for introducing peacekeeping forces to resolve the Suez Crisis.
1958 Georges Pire (Belgium) leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde, a relief organization for refugees.
1959 Philip Noel-Baker (UK) for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation.
1960 Albert Lutuli (South Africa) president of the ANC (African National Congress).
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden) secretary-general of the UN (awarded posthumously).
1962 Linus Carl Pauling (USA) for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing.
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva.
League of Red Cross Societies, Geneva.
1964 Martin Luther King Jr (USA) campaigner for civil rights.
1965 United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968 René Cassin (France) president of the European Court of Human Rights.
1969 International Labour Organization (I.L.O.), Geneva.
1970 Norman Borlaug (USA) for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
1971 Chancellor Willy Brandt (Germany) for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany.
1972 Not awarded
1973 Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger (USA) and Foreign Minister Le Duc Tho (Vietnam, declined) for the Vietnam peace accord.
1974 Seán MacBride (Ireland) president of the International Peace Bureau and the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations.
Eisaku Sato (佐藤榮作) (Japan) prime minister.
1975 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (USSR) for his campaigning for human rights.
1976 Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1977 Amnesty International, London for its campaign against torture.
1978 President Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat (Egypt) and Prime Minister Menachem Begin (Israel) for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel.
1979 Mother Teresa poverty awareness campaigner (India)
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (Argentina) human rights
1981 The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1982 Alva Myrdal (Sweden) and Alfonso García Robles (Mexico) delegates to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament.
1983 Lech Wałęsa (Poland) founder of Solidarność and campaigner for human rights. Served as the first president of Poland after the fall of Communism
1984 Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (South Africa) for his work against apartheid.
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Boston.
1986 Elie Wiesel (USA) author, Holocaust survivor
1987 President Óscar Arias Sánchez (Costa Rica) for initiating peace negotiations in Central America.
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces. For participation in numerous conflicts since 1956. As of the time of the award, 736 people from a variety of nations had lost their lives in peacekeeping efforts.
1989 Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.
1990 President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (USSR) "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi (Myanmar) "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"
1992 Author Rigoberta Menchú (Guatemala) "in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"
1993 President Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and former President Frederik Willem de Klerk (South Africa) "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"
1994 PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat (Palestine), Foreign Minister Shimon Peres (Israel) and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) "for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"
1995 Józef Rotblat (Poland/UK) and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"
1996 Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo (East Timor) and José Ramos Horta (East Timor) "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"
1998 John Hume (UK) and David Trimble (UK) "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels. "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"
2000 President Kim Dae Jung (김대중) (South Korea) "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"
2001 The United Nations and Secretary-General Kofi Annan (Ghana) "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
2002 Jimmy Carter - former President of the United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
2003 Shirin Ebadi (شیرین عبادی), (Iran) "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
2004 Wangari Maathai (Kenya) "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"

See also

cy:Gwobr Nobel am Heddwch da:Nobels fredspris de:Liste der Friedensnobelpreistrger es:Premio Nobel de la Paz eo:Premio Nobel de Paco eu:Bakearen Nobel saria fr:Prix Nobel de la paix hr:Nobelova nagrada za mir io:Nobel-premiarii en pacala laboro id:Penghargaan Perdamaian Nobel is:Friarverlaun Nbels it:Premi Nobel Per La Pace he:פרס נובל לשלום zh-min-nan:Nobel H-png Ching nl:Nobelprijs voor de Vrede ja:ノーベル平和賞 no:Nobels fredspris pl:Pokojowa Nagroda Nobla pt:Nobel da Paz ro:Premiul Nobel Pentru Pace ru:Нобелевская премия мира sl:Nobelova nagrada za mir fi:Nobelin rauhanpalkinto sv:Nobels fredspris zh:诺贝尔和平奖

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