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Surrealism

From Academic Kids

Surrealism is an artistic movement, and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. Surrealism originated in early 20th century European avant-garde art and literary circles, and many early surrealists had been involved with the Dada movement. An expressly revolutionary movement, surrealism encompassed actions intended to advance radical political, social, cultural and personal change. While surrealism's most important center was in Paris, it spread throughout Europe and to North America in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.

The term surreal is also applied more generally to describe the juxtaposition of ordinary events, actions or objects in a manner where the totality does not comport with ordinary sense or social decorum. In this usage it is the successor to the idea of the fantastic in Victorian art and literature.

Contents

History of surrealism

Guillaume Apollinaire coined the term surrealism when he described the Jean Cocteau/Erik Satie/Pablo Picasso/Léonide Massine collaboration Parade (1917) in the ballet's program notes:

From this new alliance, for until now stage sets and costumes on one side and choreography on the other had only a sham bond between them, there has come about, in 'Parade', a kind of super-realism ('sur-réalisme'), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit ('esprit nouveau').

Surrealism's founding

André Breton's Surrealist Manifesto of 1924 and the publication of the magazine The Surrealist Revolution (La Révolution Surréaliste) mark the beginning of the movement as a public agitation. In the manifesto he defines surrealism as pure psychic automatism with automatism being spontaneous creative production without conscious moral or aesthetic self-censorship. By Breton's admission, as well as by the subsequent development of the movement, this definition lent itself to considerable expansion. Breton also wrote the following dictionary and encyclopedia definitions:

Dictionary: SURREALISM, n. Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, or in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.
Encyclopedia: SURREALISM. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life."
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MagrittePipe.jpg
René Magritte's The Betrayal of Images (1928-9)

Breton and Philippe Soupault wrote the first automatic book, The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques), in 1919. Later, André Masson developed automatic drawing. Automatic drawing and painting, as well as other automatic methods such as decalcomania, frottage, fumage, grattage and parsemage, became significant surrealist techniques. Much later, automatism was adapted to the computer.

By December of 1924, the publication La Révolution Surréaliste edited by Pierre Naville and Benjamin Péret, then later by Breton, began distribution. A Bureau of Surrealist Research started in Paris, and was, at one time, under the direction of Antonin Artaud. In 1926, Louis Aragon wrote Paris Peasant (Le Paysan de Paris), following the appearance of many surrealist books, poems, pamphlets, automatic texts and theoretical works published by the surrealists, including those by René Crevel.

Many of the popular artists in Paris throughout the 1920s and 1930s explored surrealism. Among them were René Magritte, Joan Miró, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Alberto Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Méret Oppenheim, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, Hans Arp, Giorgio de Chirico, and Paul Delvaux.

Games, such as the exquisite corpse, assumed importance in surrealism.

Sometimes considered exclusively French, surrealism was international from the beginning, with both Belgian and Czech groups developing early; the Czech group continues uninterrupted into the 21st century. Some of those described as the most significant surrealist theorists, such as Karel Teige from Czechoslovakia, Shuzo Takiguchi from Japan, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Aimé Césaire and René Menil from Martinique (who started the surrealist journal Tropiques in 1940), hailed from other countries. The most radical of surrealist methods also hailed from countries other than France, for example, Romanian surrealist Gherasim Luca invented the technique of cubomania.

Related to Dada, from which many of its initial members came, surrealism is significantly broader in scope. Dada was primarily based on the rejection of categories and labels, and rooted in negative responses to the First World War. Surrealism advocated the idea that the ordinary and depictive were still vital and important, but that the sense of arrangement should, and indeed must, be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic. The surrealists believed life can be transformed into a fertile crescent of freedom, love, and poetry. Breton proclaimed that the true aim of surrealism was long live the social revolution, and it alone!.

The surrealism movement was connected with the theories of Sigmund Freud, and with primitivism more generally. Its political agenda strove towards communism, as well as being influenced by anarchism. As with many movements of the period, including expressionism, its diagnosis of the problem of the realism and capitalist civilisation was the restrictive overlay of false rationality (including social and academic convention) on the free functioning of the instinctual urges of the mind. However, this dry connection does not explain the root of surrealism's broader appeal. According to Dalí, it was that surrealism did not reject the sense of beauty and aesthetic appeal of the past, merely the confines of it (this analysis may have been criticised by many surrealists, who considered the movement extra-aesthetic). It also embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of underlying madness and darkness of the mind. Dalí's famous quote is, The only difference between myself and a madman is I am not MAD!

Interwar surrealism: Centrality of Breton

Breton, the central figure of the surrealist movement, not only published the most thorough explanations of its techniques, aims and ideas, but was the individual who drew in, and occasionally expelled, writers, artists and thinkers. Between the World War I and World War II, he formed the focus of surrealist activity in Paris. Through such works as Nadja (1928), the Second Surrealist Manifesto (1930), Communicating Vessels (1932), and Mad Love (1937) his writings were enormously influential in spreading surrealism as a body of thought, .

During a turbulent period in the late 1920s several individuals closely associated with Breton left the movement, and several prominent artists entered. Surrealism continued to expand in public visibility. In Breton's own estimation the high water mark was the 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition.

Surrealism also attracted writers from the United Kingdom to Paris, David Gascoyne among them. He became friends with Paul Éluard and Max Ernst, and translated the writing of Breton and Dalí into English. In 1935 he authored A Short Study of Surrealism, after which he returned to England during World War II where he roomed with Lucian Freud and continued to write in a surrealist style for the remainder of his life.

In 1937, Breton and Leon Trotsky co-authored a Manifesto for an independent revolutionary art on the need for a permanent revolution, and attacked Stalinism and Socialist realism, as the negation of freedom.

Splinter groups

L'acéphale

L'acéphale (meaning headless) was a splinter group formed in the mid-1930s comprised of some of those disaffected by Breton's increasing rigidity and led by Georges Bataille.

College of Sociology

College of Sociology was a loosely-knit group of French intellectuals united in their dissatisfaction with surrealism. Formed in 1937, they believed that surrealism's focus on the unconscious privileged the individual over society, and obscured the social dimension of human experience.

Surrealism during World War II

The rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany and the events of 1939 to 1945 in Europe, overshadowed almost all else for a time.

In 1941, Breton went to the United States, where he founded the short lived magazine VVV, which boasted high production values and a great deal of content, however its content was increasingly in French and not English. It was American poet Charles Henri Ford and his magazine View which offered Breton a channel to promote surrealism in the United States. Ford and Breton had an on-again, off-again relationship. Breton felt Ford should work more specifically for surrealism, and Ford resented what he felt were Breton's attempts to make him toe the line. Nevertheless, View published an interview between Breton and Nicolas Calas, as well as special issues on Tanguy and Ernst, and in 1945, on Marcel Duchamp.

The special issue on Duchamp was crucial to the public understanding of surrealism in America. It stressed Duchamp's connections to surrealist methods, offered Breton's interpretations of Duchamp's work, as well as Breton's view that Duchamp represented the bridge between early modern movements, such as futurism and cubism, with surrealism.

According to Martica Sawin, the Second World War represents Surrealism in Exile, and he traces the connections to the founding of the New York School focused on abstract expressionism, and the increasing influence of Existentialism as competing with, and in many cases displacing, surrealism's place in avant-garde. This view, that surrealism would be submerged by later movements, is held particularly by American art historians, many of whom link the end of the Second World War with the end of surrealism as an organized movement.

Surrealism after World War II

With Breton's return to France after the Second World War, a new phase in activity began in Paris. One action which attracted considerable attention was the choice of the phoenix to represent the new effort, and for a time it appeared that surrealism's ability to combine older perspectives and techniques with new insights (for example, the de-emphasis on Marxism) might bolster the argument for surrealism's continued importance in 20th century philosophy, art and literature.

Breton continued to write and espouse the importance of the liberation of the human mind. For example in The Tower of Light in (1952), his critiques of rationalism and dualism found a new audience after the Second World War. His argument that returning to old patterns of behavior ensured a repeated cycle of conflict, seemed increasingly prophetic to French intellectuals as the Cold War mounted. Breton's insistence that surrealism was not an aesthetic movement, nor a series of techniques and tools, but instead the means to an ongoing revolt against the reduction of humanity to market relationships, religious gestures and misery, meant his ideas and stances were taken up by many, even those who had never heard of Breton, or read any of his work. The importance of living surrealism was repeated by Breton and by those writing about him.

The end of surrealism

There is no clear consensus about the end of the surrealist movement: some historians suggest that the movement was effectively disbanded by World War II, others treat the movement as extending through the 1950s. Art historian, Sarane Alexandrian, (1970) stated that the death of André Breton in 1966 marked the end of surrealism as an organized movement.

However, some who knew Breton, and were part of groups he founded or approved continued to be active until well after his death. For example, Czech Surrealism Group in Prague, though driven underground in 1968, re-emerged in the 1990s. Still other groups and artists, not directly connected to Breton, have claimed the surrealist label. In addition, surrealism, as a prominent critique of rationalism and capitalism, and a theory of integrated aesthetics and ethics influenced later movements, including many aspects of postmodernism.

Surrealism as an artistic movement

Early surrealist visual arts

In general usage, the term surrealism is more often applied to the movement in visual arts than the original cultural and philosophical movement. As with many terms, the relationship between the two usages is a matter of debate outside the movement. (Other examples are romanticism and minimalism, which apply to different ideas and periods in differing contexts.) The relationship between the movement in visual arts, and surrealism as a political and philosophical movement is complex. Many surrealist artists regarded their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, and André Breton was explicit in his belief that surrealism was first and foremost a revolutionary movement.

Since so many of the artists involved in surrealism came from the Dada movement, the demarcation between surrealism and Dada art, as with the demarcation between surrealism and Dada in general, is a drawn differently by different scholars. Masson's automatic drawings of 1923, are often used as a convenient point of difference, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the subconscious.

In 1924, Miró and Masson applied surrealism to painting explicitly leading to the La Peinture Surrealiste Exposition at Gallerie Pierre in 1925, which included work by Man Ray, Masson, Paul Klee and Miró among others. It confirmed that surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it was initially debated whether this was possible), even though surrealists used techniques from Dada such as photomontage. In 1926, on March 26 the Galerie Surrealiste opened with an exhibition by Man Ray. In 1928, Breton published Surrealism and Painting, summarising the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.

The roots of surrealism in the visual arts run to both Dada and cubism, as well as the abstraction of Wassily Kandinsky, expressionism, and post-impressionism. However, it is not techniques which mark the surrealist movement in the visual arts, but the creation of objects from the imagination no matter what technique was used.

One example is Alberto Giacometti's 1925 Torso, which marked his movement to simplified forms and inspiration from pre-classical sculpture. Another striking example of the line used to divide Dada and surrealism among art experts is the pairing of 1925s Von minimax dadamax selbst konstruiertes maschinchen (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/images/lists/work/45_6_lg.jpg) with Le Basier (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/images/lists/work/45_4_lg.jpg) from 1927 by Max Ernst. The first is generally held to have a distance, and erotic subtext, whereas the second presents an erotic act openly and directly. In the second the influence of Miró and Picasso's drawing style is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines, and colour, whereas the first takes a directness that was later influential in movements such as pop art.

Giorgio de Chirico was one of the important joining figures between the philosophical and visual aspects of surrealism. Between 1911 and 1917, he adopted a primary colour palette and unornamented epictional style whose surface was later adopted by other artists. The Red Tower (La tour rouge) (1913) shows the stark colour contrasts and illustrative style adopted by later surrealist painters. His 1914 The Nostalgia of the Poet (La Nostalgie du poete)[1] (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_md_35_1.html) has the figure turned away from the viewer, and the juxtaposition of a bust with glasses and a fish as a relief which defies conventional realistic explanation.

De Chirico not only painted, he also wrote. His novel Hebdomeros presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax and grammar, designed to create a particular atmosphere and frame around its images. His images, including set designs for the Ballet Russe, created a decorative form of visual surrealism, and he influenced two artists who became even more closely associated with surrealism in the public mind — Dalí and Magritte.

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The_Persistence_of_Memory.jpg

1930s

In decade prior to the World War II surrealism grew in popularity comparable to the Pop art culture few decades later. The development of the surrealism in the 1930s is most often associated with Salvador Dalí, although many 21st century critics ignore the fact that Dalí separated from the official movement early in the decade. The popularity and commerical success of surrealism can partially be attributed to agressive marketing and self-promotion, which Dalí used effectively and which later became his trademark.

Magritte and Dalí created the most widely recognized images of the movement. In 1929, Dalí joined the group and the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935. Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance in order to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.

In 1931, several surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution. Magritte's Voice of Space (La Voix des airs)[2] (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_lg_92_2.html) is an example of this process. He painted three large spheres representing bells hanging above a landscape. Another surrealist landscape from this same year is Yves Tanguy's Promontory Palace (Palais promontoire)[3] (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/movement_work_md_Surrealism_152_2.html), with its molten forms and liquid shapes. However, liquid shapes became the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his famous The Persistence of Memory, featuring the famous image of clocks that sag as if they are made out of cloth.

The characteristics of this style — a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological — came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche to be made whole with ones individuality. Long after personal, political and professional tensions broke up the surrealist group, Magritte and Dalí continued to define a visual program in the arts. This program reached beyond painting, to encompass photography as well, as can be seen in a Man Ray self portrait (http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/s/images/surreal_manra.selfp.lg.jpg) whose use of assemblage influenced Robert Rauschenberg's collage boxes.

During the 1930s Peggy Guggenheim, an important American art collector, married Max Ernst, and begin promoting work by other surrealists such as Tanguy. However, by the outbreak of the Second World War in 1937, the taste of the avant-garde had swung decisively towards abstract expressionism with the support of key taste-makers, including Guggenheim. According to Micheal Bell, it was at this time that the two poles of surrealistic art, what he labels automatism and veristic surrealism became more pronounced, and, according to his interpretation of events, only automatism was accepted after the war because of its relationship to abstraction. In his writings he expresses a sympathy for the creative path of Dalí as the Veristic Surrealist over the automatist approach.

World War II and beyond

As with many artistic movements in Europe, the coming of the Second World War proved disruptive; both because of the rift between Breton and Dalí over Dalí's support of Francisco Franco, and because of a diaspora of the members of the surrealist movement itself. Dalí said to remain a surrealist forever was like painting only eyes and noses, and declared he had embarked on a classic period. Max Ernst in 1962 said, I feel more affinity for some German Romantics. Magritte began painting what he called his solar or Renoir style.

However, the works continued. Many surrealist artists continued to explore their visual vocabularies, including Magritte. Many members of the surrealist movement continued to correspond and meet. In 1960, Magritte, Duchamp, Ernst, and Man Ray met in Paris.

While Dalí may have been excommunicated by Breton, he neither abandoned the themes from the 1930s, including references to the persistence of time in a later painting, nor did he become a depictive pompier. His classic period (http://www.kalymnos-isl.gr/dimitri/dali-cla.htm) did not represent so sharp a break with the past as some descriptions of his work portray.

During the 1940s, surrealism's influence was also felt in England and America. Mark Rothko took an interest in bimorphic figures, and in England Henry Moore, Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon and Paul Nash used or experimented with surrealist techniques. However, Conroy Maddox, one of the first British surrealists (beginning in 1935), remained within the movement, and organized an exhibition of current surrealist work in 1978 in response to an exhibition which infuriated him because it did not properly represent surrealism. The exhibition, entitled Surrealism Unlimited took place at Camden Arts Centre, London and attracted international attention. He held his last one man show in 2002, shortly before his death in 2005.

Magritte's work became more realistic in its depiction of actual objects, while maintaining the element of juxtaposition, such as in 1951's Personal Values (http://www.atara.net/magritte/50s/personal-values.html) and 1954's Empire of Light (http://www.atara.net/magritte/50s/empire-of-light.jpg). Magritte continued to produce works which have entered artistic vocabulary, such as Castle in the Pyrenees (http://www.atara.net/magritte/50s/castle-pyrenees.html) which refers back to Voix from 1931, in its suspension of objects over a landscape.

Other figures in the surrealist movement were expelled, for example Roberto Matta, but by their own description, remained close to surrealism. Many new artists explicitly took up the surrealist banner for themselves — some following what they saw as the path of Dalí, others holding to views they derived from Breton. Duchamp continued to produce sculpture, and, at his death, was working on an installation with the realistic depiction of a woman viewable only through a peephole. Dorothea Tanning and Louise Bourgeois continued to work, for example with Tanning's Rainy Day Canape from 1970.

The 1960s saw an expansion of surrealism with the founding of West Coast Surrealist Group as recognized by Breton's personal assistant Jose Pierre and also The Surrealist Movement in the United States.

With the 1970s, surrealism's desire to be understandable became a point of departure for many artists. Among them, Mark Tansey, who regarded abstraction as fragmented and incomplete as a tool of artistic conversation.

Since surrealism ceased to have as much cachet in the world of modern art criticism, there has been an explosion of self-identified surrealists, having no more connection to the original surrealist movement than an admiration for one or more aspects of it. A sampling of current working artists who identify in one way or another might include Howard Newman, Quentin Shih, Kunihiro Shinohara and Alan Turner.

Surrealism as an artistic movement became practically invisible near the end of the 20th century, but surrealist elements are clearly present in the works of many contemporary artists.

That surrealism has remained commercially successful and popularly recognized has lead many people associated with the Breton's surrealist group to criticise more general uses of the term. They argue that many self-identified surrealists are not grounded in Breton's work and the techniques of the movement.

Surrealism remains enormously popular with museum patrons; the Tate Modern in 2001 held an exhibition of surrealist art that attracted over 170,000 visitors. An integral movement in the Modern period, surrealism proceeded to inspire a new generation seeking to expand the vocabulary of art.

Impact of surrealism

While surrealism is typically associated with the arts, it has been said to transcend them, and surrealism has impacted many other fields. In this sense, surrealism does not refer only to self-identified surrealists, or those sanctioned by Breton, rather, it refers to a range of creative acts of revolt and efforts to liberate the imagination.

In addition to surrealist ideas that are grounded in the ideas of Hegel, Marx and Freud, surrealism is seen by its advocates as being inherently dynamic and is dialectic in its thought.

Surrealist groups have drawn on sources as seemingly diverse as Clark Ashton Smith, Bugs Bunny, comic strips, the obscure poet Samuel Greenberg and the hobo writer and humourist T-Bone Slim. Surrealist strands are found in movements such as Free Jazz (Don Cherry, Sun Ra, etc.) and even in the daily lives of people in confrontation with limiting social conditions.

Thought of as the effort of humanity to liberate the imagination as an act of insurrection against society, surrealism dates back to, or finds precedents in, the alchemists, possibly Dante, various heretical groups, Hieronymus Bosch, Marquis de Sade, Charles Fourier, Comte de Lautreamont and Arthur Rimbaud. Surrealists believe that non-Western cultures provide a continued source of inspiration for surrealist activity because some may strike a better balance between instrumental reason and the imagination in flight than Western culture.

Some artists, such as H.R. Giger in Europe who won an Academy Award for his stage set, and who designed the creature in the movie Alien, have been popularly called surrealists. However, Giger is a visionary artist and it is speculated that he doesn't claim to be surrealist.

The Society for the Art of Imagination has come under bitter criticism from a self-characterised surrealist movement (although this criticism has been characterized by at least one anonymous individual as coming from the Marxists [sic] surrealist groups, who maintain small contingents worldwide. He has also pointed out what he considers the hypocrisy of any surrealist criticism of the Society for the Art of Imagination given that Kathleen Fox designed the cover of issue 4 of the bulletin of the Groupe de Paris du Mouvement Surrealiste and also participated in the 2003 Brave Destiny[4] (http://wahcenter.net/exhibits/2003/surreal/index.html) show. Though some presented Brave Destiny as the largest-ever exhibit of surrealist artists, the show was officially billed as exhibiting Surrealism, Surreal/Conceptual, Visionary, Fantastic, Symbolism, Magic Realism, the Vienna School, Neuve Invention, Outsider, Naïve, the Macabre, Grotesque and Singulier Art.)

A clear impact of surrealism is found in contemporary commercial illustration, especially for fantasy books and in the advertisement art.

Surrealist music

In the 1920s several composers were influenced by surrealism, or by individuals in the surrealist movement. Among them were Bohuslav Martinu, Andre Souris and Edgar Varese, who stated that his work Arcana was drawn from a dream sequence. Souris was associated with the surrealism movement. He had a long, if sometimes spotty, relationship with Magritte, and worked on Paul Nouge's publication Adieu Marie.

French composer Pierre Boulez wrote a piece called explosante-fixe (1972), inspired by Breton's mad love.

Even though Breton, by 1946, responded rather negatively to the subject of music in his essay Silence is Golden, later surrealists have been interested in, and found parallels to surrealism in, the improvisation of jazz and blues (surrealists, such as Paul Garon, wrote articles and full-length books on the subject). Jazz and blues musicians have occasionally reciprocated this interest. For example, the 1976 World Surrealist Exhibition included such performances by Honeyboy Edwards.

Readers of the surrealists have also analysed reggae, rap, and some rock bands such as The Psychedelic Furs. In addition to musicians who have been influenced by surrealism (including some influence in rock — the title of the 1967 psychedelic Jefferson Airplane album Surrealistic Pillow was obviously inspired by the movement), such as the experimental group Nurse With Wound (whose album title Chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and umbrella is taken from a line in Lautreamont's Maldoror), surrealist music has included such explorations as those of Hal Rammel.

Surrealist film

Surrealist films such as An Andalusian Dog (Un chien andalou) and The Golden Age (L'Âge d'Or) by Luis Buñuel and Dalí.

Surrealist and film theorist Robert Benayoun wrote books on Tex Avery, Woody Allen, Buster Keaton and the Marx Brothers.

Some have described David Lynch as a surrealist filmmaker. He never participated in the surrealist movement or in any surrealist activity, but there are some aspects of many of his films that are of surrealist interest.

External link

  • Surreal Films (http://wayney.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/surreal.htm)

Surrealist television

Some have found the television series The Prisoner and Lost to be of surrealist interest.

See also

The category Surrealism

Techniques

List of artists, writers and filmakers

Artists, including writers, involved in the early 20th century surrealism movement

Artists, including writers, whose work is often classified as surrealist but were not involved in the early 19th century movement

Sources

  • Guillaume Apollinaire (1917, 1991). Program note for Parade, printed in Oeuvres en prose complètes, 2:865-866, Pierre Caizergues and Michel Décaudin, eds. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
  • André Breton. The Abridged Dictionary of Surrealism, reprinted in:
    • Marguerite Bonnet, ed. (1988). Oeuvres complètes, 1:328. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
  • André Breton, Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism (Gallimard 1952) (Paragon House English rev. ed. 1993). ISBN 1569249709.
  • What is Surrealism?: Selected Writings of André Breton (edited and with an Introduction by Franklin Rosemont). ISBN 0873488229.
  • André Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism containing the 1st, 2nd and introduction to a possible 3rd Manifesto, and in addition the novel The Soluble Fish and political aspects of the surrealist movement. ISBN 0472179004.
  • Gerard Durozoi, History of the Surrealist Movement (translated by Alison Anderson, University of Chicago Press). ISBN 0226174115.
  • Rosemont, Franklin, Surrealism and Its Popular Accomplices San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books (1980). ISBN 087286121X.
  • Brotchie, Alastair and Gooding, Mel, eds. A Book of Surrealist Games Berkeley, CA: Shambhala (1995). ISBN 1570620849.
  • Alexandrian, Sarane. Surrealist Art London:Thames & Hudson, 1970.
  • Melly, George Paris and the Surrealists Thames & Hudson 1991
  • Lewis, Helena The Politics Of Surrealism 1988
  • Caws, Mary Ann Surrealist Painters and Poets: An Anthology 2001 MIT Press

External links

bg:Сюрреализъм ca:Surrealisme cs:Surrealismus da:Surrealisme de:Surrealismus et:Sürrealism el:Υπερρεαλισμός es:Surrealismo eo:Superrealismo fr:Surréalisme ko:초현실주의 he:סוריאליזם nl:Surrealisme ja:シュルレアリスム pl:Surrealizm pt:Surrealismo ro:Suprarealism sv:Surrealism zh:超现实主义

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