Liouville's theorem (complex analysis)

From Academic Kids

For Liouville's theorem in Hamiltonian mechanics, see Liouville's theorem (Hamiltonian).

Liouville's theorem in complex analysis states that every bounded (i.e., there exists a real number M such that |f(z)| ≤ M for all z in C) entire function (a holomorphic function f(z) defined on the whole complex plane C) must be constant.

Liouville's theorem can be used to give an elegant short proof for the fundamental theorem of algebra.

The theorem is considerably improved by Picard's little theorem, which says that every entire function whose image omits at least two complex numbers must be constant.

In the language of Riemann surfaces, the theorem can be generalized as follows: if M is a parabolic Riemann surface (such as the complex plane C) and N is a hyperbolic one (such as an open disk), then every holomorphic function f : MN must be constant.

Proof

Given f, we have

<math>f(z) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty a_k z^k<math>

by Taylor series about 0, which implies

<math>|a_k| = \left|{1 \over 2 \pi i} \oint_{C_r} {f(z)\over (z-0)^{k+1}}\,dz\right| = {1 \over 2 \pi} \left|\oint_{C_r} {f(z)\over z^{k+1}}\,dz\right|<math>

where Cr is the circle about 0 of radius r. By moving the absolute value inside of the integral, we find

<math>\left| \oint_{C_r} {f(z)\over z^{k+1}}\,dz\right| \le \oint_{C_r} {|f(z)|\over |z|^{k+1}}\,dz.<math>

Now we can use the assumption that |f(z)| ≤ M for all z (since f is given to be bounded), and the fact that |z|=r on the circle Cr. We get

<math>\oint_{C_r} {|f(z)|\over |z|^{k+1}}\,dz \le \oint_{C_r} {M\over r^{k+1}}\,dz.<math>

Then,

<math> |a_k| \le {1 \over 2\pi} {M \over r^{k+1}} {2\pi r} = {r M \over r^{k+1}} = {M \over r^k}.<math>

Let r now tend to infinity so the circle Cr gets ever larger. If k is greater than 0, M/rk tends to zero and so ak must be zero.

However, if k=0, r0 = 1 (r ≠ 0 as r tends to infinity), so a0 is the only term left in the Taylor series, and we have our result.

See also

External links

fr:Th้or่me de Liouville (variable complexe) he:משפט ליוביל (אנליזה מרוכבת) it:Teorema di Liouville (analisi complessa)

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools